EFFECTS AND EVIDENCE OF THE "BACKGROUND FIELD"
Carlos Calvet, Effects and Evidence of the "Background Field", Extraterrestrial Physics Review - EPR, Japan, Vol.1, No.3, March 2000
Carlos Calvet, Effects and Evidence of the "Background Field", Journal of New Energy, USA, Vol. 4, no. 4, Spring 2000
Carlos Calvet, Ph.D.
E-mail: [email protected]
The Background Field (BF) is an advanced figurative quantum model of the Zero-Point Field, the probable origin of inertia, gravity and EM-fields. It explains also, why the speed of light is limited, and unclear phenomena like "antigravitation" and the Tunnel Effect by means of interactions between elementary particles and the BF. The BF fills up the whole universe and represents therefore a resistance to any moving particle, even to light.
Our universe consists of a BF located inside an absolute void space. We can imagine the BF as a 3-D matrix of virtual gravitons linked by strings. The tension of the strings produce the resistance, we know as "inertia". Contraction of the BF produces gravitation, while a spinning BF produces EM-fields.
If we made a "hole" in the BF, this hole would have no more any inherent resistance, thus allowing to increase the velocity of particles beyond c. Such tiny holes in the BF are probably the origin of the "Tunnel Effect. This effect is the first evidence for the BF. A second evidence for the BF is the higher temperature of the solar corona (up to 2x106°C) with respect to the photosphere (5,500°C) due to the high pressure of radiation that just leaves the material surface of the sun and produces large "holes" in the surrounding BF. The lack of resistance in such holes allows photons to accelerate beyond "c", thus gaining more energy and making increase the temperature in the corona.
Furthermore, if antigravitation resulted to be real, it would be the third evidence for this model, since it would be the result of competition between EM and gravitational fields for virtual particles derived from the BF. Experimental evidence of the BF would be the prediction that c increases in the outer space where the BF is less dense and inertia less intense. An anomalous behavior of gravitational attraction between celestial bodies could be the result of a hole in the BF between those bodies.
Finally, spacecrafts could use strong EM-radiation to produce holes in the BF and achieve practically unlimited speeds.
Key Words: antigravitation, EM fields, gravitation, inertia, speed of light, strings, Tunnel Effect, virtual particles, Zero Point Energy/Field (ZPE/ZPF)
There are several aspects in physics that have not yet been already understood, like the "Tunnel Effect" or inertia, may be because physics is lacking "something" or because the concept of "time" has not yet been completely revealed.
In modern physics, string theories are already describing particles as strings, and bosons as waves propagated by these strings. Parallel new developments in the understanding of the ZPE - that is the energy contained in the perfect vacuum - have been made recently, suggesting that in some way, inertia and gravitation are interrelated.
Inertia is probably the most unknown of all physical aspects. After failing to find an experimental proof of Mach's principle, that predicted that the gravitational effect of the whole matter contained in the universe is responsible for inertia, (Haisch et al.) suggested that inertia could be interpreted also as a reaction force of interactions between the ZPF and quarks and electrons, the fundamental components of matter. This idea was improved with a further paper of (Rueda and Haisch), avoiding the previous ad hoc particle-field interaction model (Planck oscillator) as well as the initial formula complexity.
The author adopted the very likely idea that inertia and gravity are interrelated and found a scenario that is furthermore able to interrelate also EM-fields, the "Tunnel Effect" and the still uncertain antigravitation - if it does exist. For our proposes, we can consider the BF as a 3-D field of virtual gravitons inside an absolute void space (what we call a "perfect vacuum").
This model leads further to the prediction of holes in the BF, where the velocity of any particle can increase beyond "c", since such holes are lacking the inherent resistance (inertia) of the surrounding BF. Holes in the BF have the same properties as the "Tunnel-Effect" (overlight speed) and are generated by the same means (intense EM radiation). The "Tunnel-Effect" is therefore the first evidence for the existence of the BF, although holes in the BF allow a real overlight speed, and not only a group speed.
A second evidence is the higher temperature of the solar corona (up to 2x106°C) with respect to the "colder" photosphere (5,500°C). This could be explained by the high pressure of radiation that just leaves the material surface of the sun and produces large "holes" in the BF. In such holes, the inherent resistance (inertia) decreases, and further photons and particles that are continuously released by the photosphere can subsequently accelerate beyond the speed of light, thus gaining more energy and making increase the temperature of the solar corona.
To understand this phenomenon, we must consider that - because of the great material density of the sun - a photon is known to need approx. 1 million years to leave the body of the sun. This is because photons are again and again thrown back towards the center of the sun due to the enormous number of interactions that take place inside the sun. But once at the border of the photosphere (the last material layer of the sun), a dense beam of photons and particles is irradiated, and the high density of these photons produces holes in the BF by literally pushing away the field lines of this ground field. The result is that additional solar photons and particles do no longer find any resistance to their movement, and are therefore able to accelerate beyond "c". This real acceleration produces consequently an energy increase that makes in the end increase the temperature of the corona. Finally, as the photons and particles move away from the corona, their density decreases again with the square of the distance, and the holes in the BF consequently disappear. The final result is that outside the corona, photons adopt again their usual velocity ("c") and the ambient temperature consequently decreases to "normal" values.
We can imagine our universe as consisting of a primary absolute void (a space with no resistance) and a BF that consists of virtual gravitons (VG) linked together by strings, thus building a 3-D matrix of such VGs that generates the effects we are all familiar with, like inertia, gravity, EM-fields, "Tunnel Effect", etc. Without the BF, our universe would be completely different, since particles would accelerate beyond "c" as there would be no longer any inherent resistance (BF) that produced inertia and gravity.
The BF must consist of VGs in order to be able to produce gravitation. VGs must further consist of strings in order to be able to produce inertia by the tension of the strings. The result is that the BF might consist of a 3-D matrix of VGs, where each VG is linked by strings to other 6 VGs (up, down, front, back, left, right = + and - values of x, y, z axes). The rows and lines of such VGs and strings represent the field lines of the BF.
The BF is able to generate EM and gravitational fields by means of the following interactions with material particles:
1. NEUTRAL INTERACTION
The BF would be eternal in absence of particles, but in our universe, it changes constantly due to the overall presence of material particles (fermions). When a neutral fermion moves, it interacts constantly with VGs of the BF. One part of the kinetic energy of the fermion is hereby transferred to any interacting VG on its trajectory. For any interacting VG of the BF, one real graviton (RG) is built (gravitation wave). In consequence, any moving fermion is loosing constantly kinetic energy and producing gravitation waves.
A punctual fermion interacts always with only one VG at a time. If such a fermion has a kinetic energy Ek, any RG that is produced by interactions would have the potential energy of a VG of the BF, plus a minimal kinetic energy that is necessary to loosen the 6 strings that anchor the VG in the BF:
 E(RG) = E(VG) + Ekmin
Where: E(RG) : Potential energy of a produced RG.
E(VG) : Potential energy of an interacting VG.
Ekmin : Minimal kinetic energy of a fermion, necessary to loosen the 6 strings that anchor a VG in the BF.
The above minimal kinetic energy is therefore equivalent to the potential energy of 6 strings:
 Ekmin = 6 E(S)
Where: E(S) : Potential energy of a string
In order to overcome the force of the 6 strings that anchor a VG in the BF, according to , it is necessary to apply a minimal force. This force corresponds to the inertia of a punctual particle since it represents the smallest possible resistance of the space:
 Fi = 6 E(S)/l = Ekmin/l
Where: Fi : Inertia of a punctual fermion
l : Minimal length, a minimum force must be applied, in order to loosen the 6 strings of a VG
The minimal length l corresponds probably to a value close to Plancks Elementary Length, since the length of a string is probably the smallest length that can exist at all.
The constant interactions with VGs withdraw kinetic energy from a moving punctual fermion, so that its kinetic energy becomes always less. With each interaction, according to , a particle looses the potential energy of 6 strings:
 Ek = Ek - 6 E(S) = Ek - Ekmin
Where: Ek : Kinetic energy of a punctual fermion after a neutral
Ek : Kinetic energy of a punctual fermion before a
A neutral fermion is therefore constantly decelerated by the inherent resistance of the BF. Furthermore, there is a minimum velocity at which a neutral fermion can move through the BF. To achieve this minimum velocity from the absolute rest, it is necessary to apply a minimum force in order to overcome the resistance of the BF. This force is again the inertial force. A particle can move through the space, only if it is accelerated to the above mentioned minimum velocity.
Supposing a punctual fermion is in a certain instant overcoming inertia from the absolute rest, it will achieve a minimum velocity, interacting each time, in a minimum time, with 1 VG, at a length, approx. equal to Planck's Elementary Length:
 Fi = m vmin/tmin = 6 E(S)/l
Where: Fi : Inertia of a fermion.
m : Mass of a fermion.
vmin : Absolute minimum velocity that a fermion can reach in
tmin : Minimum time, necessary to loosen the 6 strings of one
VG in the BF.
l : ~ Planck's Elementary Length.
Each time a VG from the BF interacts and produces a RG, the BF changes (it contracts due to the expulsion of 1 RG out of the 3-D matrix). When a fermion crosses the space, the global contraction of the BF is proportional to the total amount of interactions with VGs of the BF. As a result, in our universe, the BF is constantly contracting and a constant momentary reduction of the BF takes place. Since in the space, there is an almost unlimited number of VGs, the BF is reorganized constantly by the surrounding VGs. To do this, the free ends of the strings of those VGs, adjacent to the VGs that were converted into RGs and left the BF, do connect each other, thus producing again an intact, although contracted, BF.
2. ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTION
According to convention, the field lines of a positive charge are directed outwards (out of the charge), while the field lines of a negative charge are directed inwards (into the charge). This can be explained as follows: a positive charge is constantly interacting with VGs of the BF, exciting and converting them into virtual photons (VPs) that are radiated in every direction. This radiation produces field lines that are directed outwards the positive charge. (In field lines of EN-fields, VPs are linked together by strings as in the BF.)
On the contrary, a negative charge interacts with VPs from surrounding EM fields and converts them back into VGs that can get linked again to the BF, thus reducing the constant reduction to the BF to a minimum. The direction of the field lines of an electric field is therefore equivalent to the flow direction of the VPs in the field, so that the field lines of a negative charge are always directed towards the charge.
A positive charge interacts with VGs of the BF, thus producing VPs that build up an electric field. The stronger the positive charge, the more energy the produced VPs have and the stronger the resulting electric field is:
 E(VP) ~ q(+) E(VG)
Where: E(VP) : Potential energy of a produced VP.
q(+) : Positive charge of an interacting particle.
E(VG) : Potential energy of an interacting VG.
For this reason, the charge of a particle and the strength of its electric field are two different phenomena. Without the BF, positive charges would not be able to build electric fields. They would be potentially positive, but effectively neutral, since they could not interact with VGs and produce VPs of the corresponding electric fields.
On the other hand, a negative charge interacts with VPs from surrounding EM fields, thus absorbing their potential energy and converting them back into VGs that can link again to the BF or interact with surrounding positive charges. Analogous to , the potential energy of a produced VG is here indirectly proportional to the negative charge of an interacting particle because, as known, VGs have less energy than VPs:
 E(VG) ~ E(VP) / q(-)
Where: E(VG) : Potential energy of a produced VG.
E(VP) : Potential energy of an interacting VP.
q(-) : Negative charge of an interacting particle.
In summary, the total field strength of an electric field is directly proportional to the number of VPs that build the field and to their individual potential energy:
 Fe ~ n E(VP)
Where: Fe : Electric field strength.
n : Number of VPs that build an electric field.
E(VP) : (Mean) potential energy of a VP in an electric field.
In conclusion, a charge can build an electric field, only if the space around the charge is full of virtual particles of the BF or of EM-fields. VPs emitted by positive charges interact according to this model with negative charges that convert them back to VGs of the BF. Therefore, our universe is a great electromagnetic circuit in balance.
Since the EM force is known to be approx. 1041 times stronger than gravitation, a VP of an EM-field must therefore have approx. 1041 times more potential energy than a VG in a gravitational field:
 E(VP) = 1041 E(VG)
Where: E(VP) : Potential energy of a VP.
E(VG) : Potential energy of a VG.
This means that the potential energy (tension) of a string in an EM field is approx. 1041 times higher than that of a string in a gravitational field. As mentioned above, decisive for the spinning direction of an electric field is the direction in which the VPs of the field are moving (and not that of the VGs). Finally, since positive charges interact with VGs of the BF and convert them into VPs, this model includes the fundaments of what has been called electrogravitation by linking gravitation and electromagnetism (see chapter 3. below).
A. Electric attraction and repulsion
Two equal charges repel mutually because of the tension of the strings that link the VPs in the two fields:
Two positive charges repel mutually because each positive charge produces VPs as seen above. Since VPs are linked together in EM fields by means of strings, and strings in EM fields are relatively strong according to , VPs cannot change from one field line to another. Therefore, if we try to approach two positive charges, the strings that maintain the VPs linked together in each field produce a tension that tends to separate again both charges. This mutual repulsion is furthermore maintained by the VPs, both positive charges are constantly emitting.
According to , the stronger the charges, the more potential energy the produced VPs and the corresponding strings have. The result is, that the repulsion between two positive charges increases with their charge.
On the contrary, two negative charges repel each other because each charge interacts with VPs from surrounding EM fields and converts them back into VGs. There is a constant flow of VPs towards each negative charge that build two neatly defined fields since VPs cannot change from one field to another due to their high energy. In consequence, there is a constant competition for VPs between two negative charges, that produces a tension between both fields and repels the charges mutually.
Any electric repulsion or attraction is therefore proportional to the total tension (e.g. potential energy) of all the strings in the corresponding electric fields. Since every VP is linked to the corresponding electric field by means of 6 strings:
 Fq ~ 6 n E(S)
Where: Fq : Attraction or repulsion force between two electric charges.
n : Total number of VPs in both electric fields.
E(S) : Mean potential energy of a string in both electric fields.
Two unequal charges attract each other because the positive charge produces VPs that can interact directly with the negative charge. In this sense, two unequal charges support each other and a flow of VPs from the positive to the negative charge takes place. There is also a flow of VGs from the negative to the positive charge that is probably only partial, since a part of the VGs might flow back to the BF due to their extreme "volatility".
Remembering that there is a flow of VPs from the positive to the negative charge, if we try to move away each other two unequal charges, the strings in the combined electric field get tensed and a resistance appears since we are working against the field that is attractive.
On the contrary, if we approach two unequal charges, we work in the same direction of the field, no tension appears and the charges attract each other. Since the tension of the strings increases if we move away two unequal charges each other, and it decreases in the opposite direction, two unequal charges always tend to attract mutually.
According to the above model, in a neutral atom, there is a closed circuit of VPs between protons and electrons. Protons absorb VGs from the BF and produce VPs that interact with electrons and are again converted into VGs. A positive ion has an excess of protons that produces an excess of VPs that leaves the atom along field lines. On the contrary, in a negative ion, the excess of electrons interact with surrounding VPs and a negative electric field appears by means of field lines of VPs that enter into the atom. In consequence, an atom is electrically neutral if there is no interchange of virtual particles with the surrounding space. Furthermore, without the BF, any positive charge or ion would be electrically neutral since there would be no VGs to interact with and no VPs could therefore be emitted. Negative charges would also be electrically neutral in this case, since there would be no VPs to interact with.
The BF is no gravitational field by itself. Gravitation happens only if there are fermions with certain kinetic energy inside the space. Since in our universe, every particle is in a constant movement, together with all the existing galaxies and other celestial formations, fermions are therefore constantly interacting with VGs of the BF. A part of the kinetic energy of fermions is transferred to VGs, and according to , RGs are produced in form of gravitation waves.
For each interacting VG that leaves the BF as a RG, there is a momentary reduction of the BF, and the BF consequently contracts. A second particle close to an interacting particle is pushed consequently closer to the latter. Therefore, it seems to exist a force that tends to attract both particles mutually, but in effect, it is the BF that has become contracted between both particles, thus producing the illusion of a gravitational attraction. In consequence, a constant momentary reduction of the BF due to the presence of moving fermions is what we call gravitational field.
A momentary reduction of the BF is able to approach two fermions mutually, since both are constantly interacting with VGs of the BF and are therefore constantly anchored to it. This is because the above mentioned neutral interactions loosen the strings that maintain VGs linked in the BF. In order to loosen a string, it is necessary that a fermion connects physically to a VG, and in this state, it is anchored to the BF and can be moved by momentary reductions of the same. Furthermore, any fermion is very large with regard to VGs, so that it always interacts with several VGs at the same time and never stops to interact.
The faster a fermion is, the more interactions with VGs will happen, and the more the BF contracts. In consequence, faster particles have a higher gravitational attraction than slower particles. In consequence, the gravitational attraction of a particle could be very small or zero if it did not move with respect to the BF. Therefore, this model predicts that matter in absolute rest (if this could be achieved) will present no gravity. Consequently, a further evidence for the BF would be if we could detect that matter cooled near the absolute zero has less weight than at higher temperatures.
According to this model, the flow of VPs in a magnetic field is different to that of an electric field since there are no magnetic monopoles. The smallest possible magnet is the atom or molecule. As we know, the field lines of a magnet run inside the magnet, from the north pole to the south pole, and outside of the magnet, from the south pole to the north pole (according to this model, there is a flow of VP in exactly these directions). An internal cyclic current (see for ex.: De Curtis, pg.56) transfers energy to the VGs of the BF, which are in this way converted into VPs of the resulting magnetic field.
Since, as in electric fields, VPs are linked in EM fields by strings, they cannot move from one field line to another. In this sense, if we approach two equal magnetic poles, the field lines cannot interchange VPs, so that a pressure on each field line appears and the strings between the VPs of the fields become tensed. This tension is proportional to the repulsion force between two equal poles. The more we approach two equal poles, the smaller becomes the distance between two adjacent field lines and the higher the tension of the corresponding strings is. The result: equal poles tend to repulse each other and this repulsion is proportional to the distance between both poles, e.g. between two adjacent field lines.
If we approach two unequal poles, the VPs that come out of the south pole of one magnet enter without any impediment into the north pole of the other magnet. To do so, it is not necessary that VPs change from one field line to another. The density of field lines between two opposite poles simply doubles and a unique circuit of VPs appears. Since the combined magnetic field consists of twice as much field lines (and VPs) as in one single pole, the magnetic force of the combined magnet is also approx. twice as high as that of one individual magnet.
In magnets, without the BF, internal currents would not be able to produce VPs, since there would be no VGs to interact with. In this case, there would be no magnets at all, as well as no positive charges or ions. In addition, there would also be no negative charges or ions since the VPs with which they interact would not exist. In conclusion, without the BF, there would be no EM fields at all.
The BF is probably the principle that makes our universe be as it is. We are not able to see the BF, because we are submerged in it. This case is similar to a diver who is not able to see the surrounding water or a man who is not be able to see the surrounding air. But on land, we are able to see water drops on our hand and if we abandon the earth, we are also able to see the atmosphere. It is not possible to see a medium if we do not leave it, because of the lack of contrast. But once we have abandoned our medium, we can see it because of the greater contrast with other existences. The same happens with the BF: since it is the medium in which we are all submerged, we cannot see it because any physical activity in our universe is due to the presence of this medium and would not take place without it. The surrounding nature would not be the same without the BF and we are not able to imagine a world without it. In order to see the BF field, we might increase the contrast, e.g. we might step out of the BF (see chapter 6. below).
Analogous happens with virtual bosons. Virtual bosons are linked together by means of strings, thus building part of a medium (field), we cannot see. But if a virtual boson abandons the medium (i.e. as free photon), we are immediately able to detect it by means of technology (radio waves) or our eyes (light) because of the contrast. In consequence, in our universe, there are at least 4 different fluid media (from more to less density): liquids, gases, the perfect vacuum (BF) and the absolute void (nothing) (see chapter 6. below).
Experimental evidence for the presence of the BF can be obtained, since the speed of light depends on the density of the BF. Since the BF is more dense near celestial bodies (gravitation), the speed of light should increase in direction to the outer space. We should be able to detect an increase with respect to a fix length (like a ruler). This increase cannot be detected directly (by means of simply emitting a photon beam and counting the time it takes to reflect) because the lower density of the outer space makes "enlarge" the space parallel to the decrease of density of the BF. But a fix object (ruler) is not affected by this phenomenon and can be used as reference. The above term "enlargement" means that the field lines of the BF become less dense, so that a photon can reach higher speeds by simply passing through the greater empty spaces between the field lines since these spaces (absolute void) do not have any resistance.
In summary, the BF would be in the end responsible for (and would definitely explain) a great lot of physical phenomena, many of them controversial, including:
Inertia is the resistance of the BF that limits the freedom of movement of any material particle. This resistance is due to the interaction between VGs of the BF and fermions. Each fermion has a certain kinetic energy, and a part of this energy is transferred by means of interactions to VGs of the BF. As a result, it is necessary to apply a force in order to move a fermion through the BF from the absolute rest in order to compensate the kinetic energy, the BF absorbs. This force proportional to inertia and is due to the potential energy of the strings that link VGs together in the BF (, ). For each interacting VG, a fermion must loosen 6 strings in order to emit a RG.
2. THE FALL OF THE BODIES
Any body falls to earth always with the same velocity, independently from its mass, supposing there is no resistance of the air. Since the field lines of the gravitational field are directed vertically towards the center of the earth (see also chapter 3. GRAVITATION in Results), every fermion in a body moves during a free fall along these field lines. Each field line consists of numerous VGs that are linked together by strings. For this reason, any fermion must interact with a certain amount of VGs on each field line in order to fall to earth. It does not matter how many fermions a body has, since any fermion must realize these interactions independently from the other particles of the body, because any particle is located on an individual field line (or group of field lines). As a result, each fermion falls at the same time to earth, independently in which body it is momentarily located. This means furthermore that each body falls at the same time to earth, independently from how many fermions it is made of.
In addition to an electric field, charges do also have a gravitational field due to their mass. Positive charges interact with VGs of the BF. Therefore, VGs are necessary to build up the gravitational and the electric field of positive charges. In consequence, there is a competition between both fields for VGs, so that the stronger field (electric field) weakens the weaker field (gravitational field). The gravitational field does no longer dispose of 100 % of the VGs of the BF to be built up, with the result that it becomes weaker. This is the above mentioned electrogravity effect.
Since any VP in an EM field signifies a VG less in the corresponding gravitational field, the decrease of gravity of a body is proportional to the amount of positive charges of the body that determine how many VGs are converted into VPs of the corresponding electric field:
 (-)FG ~ n q(+)
Where: (-)FG : Gravity decrease of a body.
n : Number of positive charges of the body.
q(+) : Load of a positive charge of the body.
This type of antigravitation (EM reduction of gravity) happens only with positive charges and can reach theoretically a value from 0 - 100 % according to how many VGs of the BF the positive charges interact with (absorb).
Negative charges, on the contrary, emit VGs, so that in this case, there would be no deficit of VGs that could produce antigravitation. In any way, VGs produced by negative particles are very "volatile" and cannot always interact with nearby positive particles (for ex. inside an atom), so that they escape partially to the BF without interacting. This produces always a slight deficit of VGs close to negative particles and thus, always a slight local reduction of gravity. In this sense, also negative particles would participate in antigravity, although not directly.
Antigravitation was found accidentally in an experiment with a turning superconductor that was suspended by solenoids (Podkletnov). In agreement with the experiment, antigravitation cannot be suddenly be switched on and off. It reaches a theoretical value up to a certain percentage. In the experiment, it was up to 2.1 %. This can be interpreted as if approx. 2.1 % of the VGs of the BF had been converted into VPs of the corresponding EM field, so that gravity had decreased in exactly this proportion.
The supposition that VPs in EM fields must not necessarily be very abundant with respect to VGs in a gravitational field, is supported by the considerations in chapter 4. MAGNETISM: if we approach 2 unequal poles, the field lines of both magnets combine to one unique field. This is an indication that these field lines are not so abundant as in the BF. Otherwise, such type of addition would probably not be possible because of the lacking space between two adjacent field lines (in the BF, this space is probably close to Plancks Elementary Length). Therefore, the above supposition that it is about 2.1 % of the total virtual bosons, is effectively a realistic idea.
4. THE SPEED OF LIGHT
It is still unknown, why the speed of light has a finite value. This model gives a possible explanation: photons move through the interstices that exist among strings and VGs in the BF. On one hand, collisions with VGs limit the speed of photons. On the other hand, the lack of resistance of the interstices tends to increase the speed. The logical result is a movement with a limited velocity. Without the BF, the speed of light would be probably infinite (see also below).
Furthermore, light could be wavy because photons do oscillate around the VGs of the BF. As a result, without the BF, light would probably be linear and of practically infinite speed.
5. HOLES IN THE BACKGROUND FIELD
According to , the resistance of the space is equal to inertia. Since this resistance is based exclusively on the presence of VGs in the BF, it is easy to imagine that, if there was no BF, the resistance of the space would be equal to zero and there would be no inertia. Consequently, particles would cross such a void space with an infinite velocity, from one end to the other, as if there was a hole in the universe.
A hole in the BF would also mean a complete interruption of fields of force, since virtual bosons in fields of force are linked together by strings. The considerable tension between these strings would probably avoid that a part of the field of force evaporates in the absolute void of the hole. On the other hand, fermions and free bosons (i.e. light particles) could pass through such holes easily because they are not linked to any field by means of strings.
In consequence, if astronomers detect certain galaxies or celestial formations that do not influence each other mutually according to the known laws of physics, this could mean that there is a hole in the BF between these formations. In such a case, the mutual attraction, as well as any electric and magnetic field, would be interrupted by the hole.
6. THE TUNNEL EFFECT
The Tunnel Effect is per definition the propagation of EM waves with overluminic velocity and has been described experimentally, for ex. in (Nimtz). In this sense, this phenomenon is probably a small variant of the above described holes in the BF since both phenomena have the same effect (overluminic velocity). In consequence, it is logical to assume that both phenomena do also have the same cause (holes in the BF).
Nimtz used intense EM waves to increase "c" in hollow conductors. This could be explained by the fact that EM waves literally push away field lines of the BF, thus producing the mentioned holes in the BF. Further photons could then pass such holes with a velocity higher than "c".
Of course, such artificial tiny holes in the BF are probably not perfect, so that there will always be a certain resistance. Therefore, particles will probably need a certain time to accelerate from their ground speed to overluminic speed. For this reason, in small holes, we cannot expect very high velocities. And in effect, a typical value that has been measured here is only 1,7 c (Steinberg et al.) or 2c (Nimtz), thus supporting the idea of imperfect holes in the BF.
We have seen that the idea of the BF meets very well the results of already made experiments and the principles of physics. It cannot be foreseen, which possibilities we are offered if we learn to produce and to control holes in the BF. A practical application could be for ex. instant teleportation of material bodies. Through holes in the BF, we could also receive signals from remote civilizations and send them our own signals. We would dispose in this case of the possibility to communicate, even without any physical contact. In this sense, information has already been tunneled without being destroyed (Nimtz).
In (Calvet), further practical applications of the BF-theory are discussed, such as the possibility of interstellar voyages with the aid of field and gyroscopic propulsions. Overlight speed could be easily achieved by means of a concentrated beam of EM-waves that produces a hole in the BF. Spacecrafts could use such technology to travel even to distant galaxies.
Another possibility is the transmutation of elementary particles, since the model of the BF allows theoretically to extract single photons from EM fields in an analogous way as gravitons emerge from gravitational fields.
Since any momentary reduction of the BF signifies that the BF is absorbing energy and that it is vibrating, it should be possible for us to use these vibrations (zero-point energy) so that we could dispose of a practically unlimited amount of cheap energy due to the practically unlimited number of interactions between fermions and the BF in our universe.
The idea of overluminic speed is furthermore no longer contradictory with Special Relativity, since Special Relativity is based on a universe that contains a BF. Therefore, if we make a hole in the BF, the speed of a particle can become practically infinite, even in agreement with Einstein's principles.
I wished to tank all those people (like my wife Maria) that have supported during all these years my experiments of thought, which lead gradually to the BF-theory. I hope this theory will be very useful for mankind and that we learn with its aid more about the real nature of our universe.
C. Calvet, Raumfahrzeuge der Zukunft, Bohmeier Verlag/Lübeck, 105 pp. (July 2000) (in German)
S. De Curtis, J. Fernández Ferrer, Physik, Neuer Kaiser Verlag, 95 pp. (1998) (in German)
B. Haisch, A. Rueda and H.E. Puthoff, "Inertia as a Zero-point field Lorenz force", Phys. Rev. A 49, 678 (1994)
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