Evidence for the Existence of 5 Real Spatial Dimensions in Quantum Vacuum

- Scale of Quantum
Temperatures *Below Zero Kelvin* -

** ****Author: **Carlos Calvet, Ph.D.

**Communications Information: **

Dr.
Carlos Calvet, Francisco Corbera no. 15,

E-08360
Canet de Mar (B), Spain

E-mail: [email protected]

http://www.telefonica.net/web/planckworld

**Abstract**

Conventional
forces like gravitation and electromagnetism vary with the square of the
distance. This is because the corresponding force is scattered into 3
dimensions due to the distribution of virtual gravitons or photons of the
corresponding field in a 3D-space.

In
an analogous way, the Casimir force, that varies with the 4th power of the
distance, ought to arise from bosons distributed in a hyperspace with 5 real
physical dimensions.

This
leads to the prediction of a whole new world of “quantum temperatures” below
zero Kelvin, and to a model that surprisingly agrees with cosmology and recent
findings of the zero-point-field (ZPF). “Virtual” field particles (e.g. bosons
of the ZPF) are probably nothing else than hyperspace particles that cross our
3-D universe from time to time, thus seeming “virtual” to us.

Hyperspace
is an absolutely real resort. It could be used i.e. for interstellar navigation
and be accessed through natural or artificial Black Holes (BH) or other kind of
hyperdense matter produced by hydrogen bomb compression of matter cooled near
0şK. The more matter we compress, the more the resulting BH will descend down
to a world with no photons, no quantum waves and no energy of any kind. The
last stage is a completely flat universe where all particles have mysteriously
disappeared in agreement with their most likely wavy nature.

Due
to quantum spin energy, any fermion is a small “window” to hyperspace. In
addition, gravitation and EM can be easily explained as a self sustained
suction force originated in hyperspace that attracts or repels matter of our
3-D universe through the mentioned windows. In summary, our universe can be
considered as a 3-D space “floating” on an immense 5-D space - the hyperspace -
in analogy to a sheet of ice floating in a deep sea.

**Key
words**: Hyperspace, Dimensions, Black Hole, Quantum
Waves, ZPR/ZPE

**Introduction**

The
possibility of “lack of air” was neglected until Otto von Guericke demonstrated
1650 the power of vacuum, using two large hemispheres that even 8 horses could
not detach from each other. 1660, Robert Boyle predicted that sound will not
travel in a vacuum, although 1798, Humphry Davy observed that heat is
transmitted through it. 1934, Paul Dirac described the polarization of vacuum
and cofounded QED, making 1950 the 1st suggestion of string theory.

In
addition, sixty years ago, the pioneers of quantum theory (Wyle, Schroedinger,
Clifford, and Einstein) believed that particles had a wavy structure, instead
of being point particles. Quantum waves, as suggested by Cramer (1986), are
real and not merely a probability distribution, thus supporting the original
concept of Clifford (1956) that all matter is simply "undulations in the
fabric of space".

Wheeler
and Feynman (1945) first predicted that the electron was made of spherical
inward and outward electromagnetic waves. Using a quantum wave (QW) equation
and spherical quantum waves, Wolff (1995) found and described a wave that
successfully predicted the properties of matter. There is great evidence that
matter is the result of spherical quantum waves that exist even at 0şK. This
model lead as early as 1922 to the prediction of the positron (Anderson), since
it predicted a particle with a spin opposite to that of the electron. The
positron was discovered by Anderson in 1931, making the theory of QW absolutely
plausible.

On
the other hand, H. G. B. Casimir of Philips Laboratories in the Netherlands discovered
the so called “Casimir Effect”, now known as an attractive force between close
metal plates. The Casimir force was measured by S. K. Lamoreaux at the
University of Washington, and defined as a “force derived from partial
shielding of the interior region of the plates, arising from the background
zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field”. Milonni and his
colleagues from Los Alamos showed that this shielding effect pushes the plates
together due to the unbalanced zero-point radiation (ZPR) of quantum vacuum.
The vacuum energy is hereby converted into kinetic energy.

In
unifying the principle of QW, the laws of gravitational and EM attraction, and
the Casmir force, this author found an obvious evidence for the existence of a
real hyperspace with 5 spatial dimensions (see also ^{8}) in the
quantum vacuum, that can be accessed through small artificial black holes or
hyperdense matter. Furthermore, there seems to exist a whole world of yet
unknown quantum temperatures even far below 0şK.

**1. Number of Dimensions of Fields
of Force**

Quantum
vacuum research revealed that the so called zero-point-radiation ZPR or ZPE (an
energy that exists even at 0şK) is composed mainly of virtual electromagnetic
waves and virtual particle pairs that cannot be measured directly (see for ex. ^{7},
^{9}). But this is contradictory to the well known findings of Lord
Kelvin, who demonstrated 1848 that all molecular activity (and therefore all EM
release) freezes at this temperature. Furthermore, if we watch the formula of
the Casimir force and compare it to those of the gravitational and
electromagnetic (EM) forces, we realize that, while gravitational, electric and
magnetic forces vary with the square of the distance [formulae
1, 2, 3], the Casimir force varies with the fourth power of the distance [4]:

[1] _{} [2] _{}

[3] _{} [4] _{}

Where: F/B = above mentioned
forces; G/C/m_{0}/h/p_{ } = constants; m/q =
mass/charge; d/r =

distance/ratio; q =
angle to magnetic vector v ([1,
2, 3] from ^{10}; [4] from ^{7})

A
force that varies with the square of the distance means that the force will
increase with the square of the distance if we reduce the distance, and it will
decrease with the square of the distance if we increase the distance. As a
result, this author concluded that a force that varies with the square of the
distance can be considered as a conventional 1-dimensional force vector
(x-axis) that is scattered into 2 additional dimensions (y, z) due to the
3-dimensional nature of space. The square power of the distance indicates the
number of additional dimensions we must add to a 1-dimensional force vector in
order to get the number of dimensions of the whole field of force (here, 3):

[5] _{}

Where: N = number of dimensions of the
whole field of force

a
= number of dimensions of the force vector (usually 1)

n
= power, the force varies with the distance (in this case, 2)

In
the above case: N = a + n =>
N = 1 + 2 = 3. This means, a 1-dimensional force vector varies with the
square of the distance in a 3-dimensional space.

In
an analogous way, a force that varies with the fourth power of the distance
(Casimir force) can be considered as a 1-dimensional force vector that is
scattered in a 5-dimensional space (N = a + n
=> N = 1 + 4 = 5). Therefore,
it is evident that the field that originates the Casimir force is a
5-dimensional field, i.e. that it is in fact a hyperspace field that produces
the corresponding effects in our 3-D universe.

**2. Quantum Temperatures**

1848,
when Lord Kelvin established the absolute temperature scale, he did not know
about quanta. The idea that there is no temperature possible below 0şK has
prevailed for more than 1 ½ centuries, but now this idea seems to be
insufficient with regard to quantum vacuum exploration (see for ex. ^{9}):
According to Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle, there ought to be a whole world
of virtual photons, particles and antiparticles even at zero Kelvin. In
consequence, zero Kelvin cannot represent zero energy. The energy that exists
at zero Kelvin must correspond furthermore to a certain energy level and this
energy level must necessarily begin far below zero Kelvin. In fact: In
agreement to equation [5], the Casimir force that originates from the ZPF is a 5-dimensional
force, and according to equation [4], its strength varies with the distance. Therefore, the field
density will be higher between plates that are close together, and weaker
between plates that are more distant. In consequence, the energy density of the
ZPF varies locally, so that there are regions with more energy than others. In
addition, zero-point fluctuations arise from virtual photons of a potential
variety of wavelengths (^{6}), thus supporting the idea that there is a
whole energy range below zero K, analogous to the energy range of real photons
above absolute zero (radio waves through gamma rays).

In
consequence, the author defines the concept of “quantum temperatures” as the
measurable amount of energy contained below zero Kelvin. This energy would
mainly be due to the following sources of kinetic or pure energy:

- quantum spin / quantum rotation
- quantum waves (wavy nature of particles, see also:
^{1},^{4}) - ZPR or Casimir energy (see also :
^{9}),

omitting willingly any other
external source of energy as the movement of the earth, the solar system, the
galaxy and the whole universe, which is of course very difficult to evaluate
and is usually omitted.

According
to ^{11}, the maximum energy density in the sense of oscillating
particles that quantum vacuum can contain is 10^{116} ergs cm^{-3}
s^{-1} = 10^{115} J m^{-3} s^{-1}. This energy
level corresponds to any wave or particle energy “that spacetime can support”.
In consequence, there is a whole world of quantum temperatures, beginning with
0şK or 10^{115} J m^{-3} s^{-1} and ending at 0 J m^{-3}
s^{-1}:

1. Above 10^{115} J (>0şK), we have
a *hot universe* with Kelvin radiation (EMR).

2. At 10^{115} J (0şK), we have a *wavy universe* with quantum
waves and ZPE, but no more Kelvin radiation (EMR=0).

3. Below 10^{115} J (<0şK), we have a universe that becomes less
and less wavy and has a respective lower ZPE.

4. At 0 J, we reach a completely flat universe with no quantum waves nor
ZPE at all.

The
flat universe corresponded to the concept of the “Big Chill”, a possible final
state of the universe after burning out all the energy available, e.g.
smoothing any existing QW.

The
above depicted scenario allows us to understand the nature of the ZPE, that is
still uncertain since it is an energy that is composed of “virtual photons that
cannot be measured directly”. According to the above dimensional model (see
Ch.1 in Results), ZPE would be composed of virtual photons that have 2 more
degrees of freedom than ordinary photons (i.e., light, heat), e.g. that exist
in a real 5-dimensional hyperspace.

With
this model in mind, it is easy to understand, why we cannot detect directly virtual
photons of the ZPE: They are not inside the same space than ourselves or our
detectors, and we can detect them only for fractions of seconds when crossing
our 3-dimensional space before disappearing again in hyperspace. Therefore,
they seem “virtual” to us (phantom particles).

Although
ZPR/ZPE has been called also ZPF (ZP-field), it is not really a field of force
as the gravitational or EM field. This can be understood from the definition of
the Casimir force: “a force derived from partial shielding of the … background
zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field” (^{6}).
This means, the Casimir force is __not__ the result of a traditional field
of force that acts by mediation of carrier particles (bosons) interchanged from
one material particle to another, thus resulting in an attraction or repulsion,
but that of photon waves, producing a radiation pressure that can be measured
(i.e. by Casimir plates). In this sense, Casimir energy or ZPE resembles more
EM radiation than an EM field, although it is as “virtual” as a field of force.
This fact has already been explained in part in Calvet^{12} and Calvet^{13}
since a field of force is a medium, which we are submerged in, thus being not
able to “see” or detect directly its components (bosons). The case of the ZPE
is different, since “virtual” means here, “particles that are coming and going
from our universe to hyperspace and vice-versa”. In consequence, there are at
least 2 different kinds of virtual particles, e.g. those from hyperspace and
those of 3-D fields of force (fields of force are 3-D because they vary with
the square of the distance - see also [1,2,3]).

A
surprising conclusion of the hyperspace model is that gravitation and EM
attraction could be explained simply as the result of a “suction” force from
hyperspace. In fact: Hyperspace is to a 3-D space as the atmosphere is to a
balloon or the void to air. The air of the balloon tries to escape to the
atmosphere through any hole the balloon has, while the air tries to fill up any
empty space (vacuum). In an analogous way, gravitation and EM can be seen as
the tendency of non-charged/charged matter to dissipate in hyperspace through
small windows between our 3-D universe and hyperspace. These windows are opened
by the energy we know as quantum spin. As seen already in the Background Field
(BF) theory (Calvet^{12} and Calvet^{13}), gravitation and EM
are probably forces produced by the same field and EM is simply due to more
energetic interactions with the BF. Therefore, hyperspace will produce a suction
force on elementary particles, analogous to their mass (gravitation) or
polarity (EM), while the BF is a field that links our world to hyperspace. EM
repulsion could be explained in an analogous way as a phenomenon that forces
the BF out of hyperspace, i.e. between two equal charges or poles.

**1. Black Holes**

According
to the above hyperspace model, a Black Hole (BH) would be a relatively large
window to hyperspace, e.g. the mass (particle density) of the corresponding
body would be so great, that it could no longer be supported by the fabric of
spacetime, thus “falling” into hyperspace. The strong gravitational attraction
of BHs can be now easily understood as a strong hyperspace suction effect on
particles in our 3-D world. The infinitely dense and infinitely small body that
is attributed usually to BHs, can be understood as a particle that has exceeded
certain limit and that has been absorbed by hyperspace. This limit would be
analogous to the Chandrasekhar limit, e.g. the mass limit, beyond which an exploding
star becomes a BH. The concepts “infinitely dense and infinitely small” are
concepts relative to our 3-D universe. In hyperspace, a BH is probably nothing
else than a conventional body with a certain density and size, since the
ability of hyperspace to support
massive bodies is probably much higher than that of 3-D space because of the 2
additional degrees of freedom (dimensions).

The
hyperspace model is a generalization and would work with any field proposed in
literature (Higgs-field, BF, ZPF, etc.). It has an intrinsic beauty since it
explains even extraordinarily strange relativistic phenomena like BHs in plane
and almost Newtonian words. Everybody understands the meaning of suction, as a
force produced by the tendency of matter to dissipate in hyperspace whenever
possible, since any increase of the size of a space will produce a force that
forces matter literally to fill up this new empty space.

Small
BHs could be produced artificially by using a conventional hydrogen bomb and
fusion material at 0şK instead of higher temperatures. At 0şK, there would be
no radiation leaving the atoms when the bomb compressed the material, thus
allowing a much more efficient compression than at higher temperatures. If we
compressed in this way hydrogen at 0şK, apart from different fusion materials,
we would also get some hyperdense material in form of small BHs or neutron
matter. Hydrogen is the ideal candidate for such compression since at 0şK, it
would build an absolutely dense proton body once we had demagnetized and
deelectrified atoms (e.g. elimination of any orbiting or free electron).

Once
we had produced and stabilized such matter by placing it i.e. in the outer
space, we could use it to access the hyperspace. The more matter we managed to
compress, the more the resulting BH would “fall” into hyperspace. We could also
condense heavy atoms like gold atoms at 0şK reaching an even much more dense
body (this would require higher compression energy and a more efficient cooling
of the device).

**2. Hyperspace Model of the Universe**

In
summary, we can imagine our world as a 3 dimensional space with 3-D objects
“floating” in a 5-dimensional sea, the hyperspace.

In drawing 1, space and
hyperspace are shown as two different worlds, each dominated by different kinds
of energy, e.g. 3-D Kelvin radiation in our universe, and 5-D quantum waves and
ZPE in hyperspace. Both worlds are linked by small windows (fermions), but also
by larger windows that can be created or exist here and there (Black Holes,
Neutron Stars, etc.). The stability of our world depends on the size of these
windows. If we created a window, so huge that the whole 3-D universe could pass
through it, our universe would be destroyed and would be absorbed completely by
the much larger hyperspace. Fortunately, in our universe, there are not many of
such large windows. In fact, the major part of hyperspace windows are as small
as elementary particles. Only here and there are larger windows like BHs or
other phenomena that have not even been described or thought about in
scientific literature.

[Drawing
1]

In drawing 1, we see an upper 3-D world with real particles of heat and
light. Forces vary in this world with the square of the distance.

Beneath
our universe, there is a 5-D world (hyperspace) with particles that are
“virtual” to us, since they cross our universe only from time to time. In this
world, there are only quantum waves and ZP-particles. Hyperspace is interfaced
to our universe through small windows (fermions) and larger “tunnels” (BHs,
Neutron Stars, etc.).

Beneath
hyperspace, there is an absolutely flat universe that represents the, so
called, “Big Chill”, since at this mysterious stage, there remains no energy of
any kind at all.

The
above mentioned hyperspace model is not an arbitrary model. It is even able to
explain cosmology:

One
of the most crucial questions of physics and cosmology is: “Why is our universe
3-dimensional?”. This model shows that our conventional 3-D space is only part
of a greater world. Our space seems 3-D to us, simply because the smallest
space that can support elementary particles is a 3-D space. But this does not
mean that there are no further dimensions - all the contrary. In fact, if we
imagine a completely empty space with no particle at all, how many dimensions
would this space have? The answer is of course: “infinite”. Infinite, because a
space without any particle inside has evidently no “information” about how many
dimensions particles need. Therefore, in order to grant in any case a *stable
universe*, space must have the greatest amount of degrees of freedom
(dimensions) possible. And this number is certainly “infinite”. Any other
universe would be unable to exist since it would be non-compatible with itself.

In
consequence, our universe is 3-dimensional, simply because 3 is the smallest
number of dimensions a particle needs to exist. This agrees with the above
mentioned hypothesis that particles are nothing else than waves in the fabric
of space since any wave has at least 3 degrees of freedom (x, y, z). May be,
hyperspace arose from the movement of elementary particles. In a space with a
potentially infinite number of dimensions, the universe (the space, where
particles are confined) is able to adopt any number of dimensions according to
the evolution of the universe itself. It is therefore not negligible to suppose
that there can exist phenomena in the universe that needed more than 5 degrees
of freedom (i.e. “strings” that are supposed to exist in 11 dimensions).

In
order to prove if the above presented model is consistent with cosmology, lets
try the following experiment of thought:

Imagine
a particle that is released at the upper side of the thermal scale. By “falling
down” the scale, the particle passes from a highly energetic state (Big Bang)
through the Kelvin universe. The lower the energetic state of the particle, the
less radiation energy it releases. In consequence, the particle cools down,
emitting X-rays at 2x10^{6}şK, UV-radiation at 10^{5}şK and
finally IR radiation at room temperature. As the particle continues to fall
down the thermal scale, it approaches 0şK, emitting less and less photons each
time. At 0şK, the emission of photons stops completely and the particle “falls”
into the hyperspace by adopting the same thermal state as the ZPR. Once in
hyperspace, the energy of the particle is of 10^{115} J m^{-3}
s^{-1}. At this stage, the particle becomes a virtual ZPF-particle. As
the particle falls more and more down the thermal scale of quantum temperatures,
its quantum wave structure weakens continuously. At reaching the level of 0
Joules, the quantum wave structure of the particle disappears and the universe
becomes completely flat as if the particle had never existed.

The above mentioned process of a particle “falling down” the Kelvin and quantum thermal scales, surprisingly agrees with the cosmological models of the Big Bang and the Big Chill. According to this hyperspace model, the Big Bang that originated the universe, produced a space with a potentially infinite number of degrees of freedom (similar to embryonic cells that have the ability to become any kind of cell of the body since they are not yet specialized). The wavy nature of elementary particles restricted the number of spatial dimensions to 3, although this basic number was subsequently increased in order to allow elementary particles to move and rotate at relativistic velocities. We can thus imagine the universe as a stormy sea of quantum waves and ZPE. The final state of such a universe (the “great calm” after the storm) is a completely flat universe with no quantum waves and no particles at all. In cosmology, this state is called the “Big Chill” and agrees surprisingly with this hyperspace model.

After describing the dimensional nature
of the universe, our efforts must now be directed to control and manipulate
hyperspace. If we manage to create artificial windows that link our universe to
hyperspace, we will be able to travel light years in 3 dimensions, while moving
only millimeters inside hyperspace. The possibilities for interstellar
navigation are enormous. A window could be opened, compressing demagnetized and
deelectrified matter at 0şK by means of a hydrogen bomb (an atomic bomb that
compresses matter). The resulting hyperdense matter could be
stabilized and used to send a probe through the hyperspace, but also to extract
radiation (cheap energy) or even to communicate with remote civilizations. I am
confident that dimensional technology will be in approx. 50 years as usual as quantum
devices in the next decades.

**References**

^{1.}
John Cramer (1986), "The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum
Mechanics," Rev. Mod. Phys, 58, pp. 647-687.

^{2.}
William Clifford (1956), "On the Space Theory of Matter," The World
of Mathematics, p.568, Simon & Schuster, NY

^{3.} J.
Wheeler and R. Feynman (1945), "Interaction with the Absorber as the
Mechanism of Radiation," Rev. Mod. Phys. 17 , 157.

^{4.}
Milo Wolff (1995), "Beyond the Point Particle - A Wave Structure for the
Electron," Galilean Electrodynamics, 6, No. 5, pp. 83-91.

^{5.}
Casimir, H.G.B. (1948) "On the attraction between two perfectly conducting
plates", Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. van Weten., Vol. 51, No. 7, pp. 793-796.

^{6.}
Lamoreaux, S.K. (1997) "Demonstration of the Casimir force in the 0.6 to 6
mm range", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 5-8.

^{ }

^{7.}
Milonni, P.W., Cook, R.J., and Goggin, M.E. (1988) "Radiation pressure
from the vacuum: Physical interpretation of the Casimir force", Phys. Rev.
A, Vol. 38, No. 3, p. 1621-1623.

^{8.} Michio Kaku (1994).
“Hyperspace. A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel
Universes, Time Warps, and the Tenth Dimension”, Oxford University Press. N.Y.
432 pp.

^{9.}
A.Rueda & B.Haisch (1998), "Inertia as reaction of the vacuum to
accelerated motion", Physics Letters A, Vol. 240, No. 3, p.115

^{10.} S. De Curtis, J.
Fernández Ferrer (1998), "Physik", Neuer Kaiser Verlag, 95 pp. (in German)

^{11.}
Bernhard Haisch & Alfonso Rueda (2000), „Toward an Interstellar Mission:
Zeroing in on the Zero-Point-Field Inertia Resonance”, AIP Conference
Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International forum
(STAIF-2000) Conference on Enabling Technology and Required Scientific
Developments for Interstellar Missions, Albuquerque, NM, p. 1-7.

^{12.}
Carlos Calvet, “Effects and Evidence of the "Background Field"”,
Journal of New Energy, Vol. 4, no. 4, Spring 2000, p. 12-23

^{13.}
Carlos Calvet, “Detection and Origin of the Background Field”, Journal of
Theoretics, Vol.2, No.4, Aug 2000